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befruchtungA monthly cycle of a woman is a complicated process, which on the one hand determines fertility, on the hand it is of an utmost importance for health and well-being of the woman. The pituitary gland (hypophysis) develops follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Under the influence of FSH, an egg cell matures in the ovary of a woman. This egg cell is located in the ovarian follicle. The release of LH in the middle of the cycle causes the follicle to release the egg cell into the fallopian tube. This is referred to as ovulation.

The maturing follicle develops oestrogen, which takes care of preparing the uterine lining. After the ovulation, the egg cell is capable of being fertilized for about 6 hours. The fertilisation of the egg cell (ovum) takes place in the fallopian tube. A sperm cell penetrates the ovum covering; the fatherly chromosomes are released into the egg cell, the cell division starts. The migration of the embryo through the fallopian tube into the uterus lasts 4-5 days, meanwhile the embryo develops further and as so-called blastocyst reaches the uterus, where he finally settles. By means of releasing signal substances to the mother’s organism, the function of the yellow body, which was developed after the ovulation, is retained. The yellow body develops progesterone, which maintains the pregnancy. If no pregnancy begins, the yellow body stops to produce hormone 14 days after that and a menstruation starts.